"P" is hard for Arabic speakers to say so they say
Senators appointed by the king. Lower house has 7 women. Women
required by quota in the '80's. Lower house elected by the people.
Amman to Jerusalem
= one hour drive
5% Christian and 85% of those 5% are Greek Orthodox. Discrimination
not allowed. Guide's father married Islamic & Jewish women
so his family is Jewish. Circassians from Russia. All inter-married.
6th Century AD started Christ. Conversion to Islam after 6th
Amman is the capital.
Came from Ammonites who lived there, now called Amorite. Petra
was one of 4 Canaanite kingdoms, the Edomites from the Book of
Numbers, Chapters 21-23. Iraq was Palestine = Amorite. Abraham
was Amorite. Abraham was the first to believe in 1 God 2000 BC.
Emigrated from Mesopotamia
after God saved him from burning at the state. Moved from Iraq
to Syria to Jordan to Jerusalem. Jerusalem was built in 3000
BC but 10000 BC was inhabited. 27 different names=Yeboose
Elina Captolina=Roman. First name was hor (city) + salem (peace)
so city of Salem or city of peace.
Settled in Jerusalem
although desert because allowed to believe in one God & not
City of Madoba: St.
Georgio's Church to see mosaics in church; 50/50 Islam &
6th C-Ottomans allowed
only re-use of existing church. Christians arrived from Karnak
& found this church and could rebuilt it in 1880AD. Built
by 1900 (completed) & now a Gk. Orthodox church.
($30/year) and private.
Mosaic by Sulimanos
(Greek ending). 6th century AD; 11,000 hours of work to show
pilgrims what to see in the Christian area of Jerusalem to Turkey
& Egypt. Greek writing because that was the official church
language then. Map shows Jerusalem, Damascus, Roman Camp where
it's believed J.C. was crucified. 12 spots of Israelites,.
Ael ending =God
Abd in Arabic = slave
99 names & camel only knows the 1 secret actual name of God.
18+81=99: lines of
the hand show these numbers=the name of God.
Isr-ael=coming to God
Gabriel=power of God
Michael = place of God.
Muslim belief is God
is always with you watching. Mosque is only for community relations.
best son of Abraham.
So OK for his father to kill him for the God who rescinds the
order of Abraham to kill Ishmael at the last minute since they
proved their faith.
Matoba (Medova in
the Bible)=fruit juice springs originally. Matoba now means table
filled with food. Best wine.
Water son of
Sahara=desert in 'Arabic.
Mosaics on floor-many
726 AD monks felt sorry to destroy the floor tiles so paved over
it; Greek language of inscriptions because Greek was official
Represents types of society of the 6th century in this area:
slaves, traders, monks, pilgrims, fighters.
3rd & 4th c. AD maybe
Nabatean temple then later Roman, later Christian; originally
was Roman basilica
Sulimanos did the mosaic in Byzantine period: 6th
Fertile soil but not water. Poor get water once a month from
Israel prevents access
2 aquifers left out of 8
From north river (Yermunk River) between Jordan, Syria &
Israel. Israel supposed to give back land to Syria that Israel
occupied but won't give back the water part. (Hmm. Obviously
a sore point.)
Illiteracy less than 10% mostly Bedouin women.
1.5 million students out of a total pop. of 5 million.
850 schools (private + public)
Black goat hair winter tents
White sheep wool summer tents
Can't usually have both so have black (can't afford both)
Under water up till 45 million years. Wadi Rum = major road stop
for incense. Petra was on the silk road. Wadi Run on incense
Asian plates connect with African. Jordan begins at edge of Asian
plate & Egypt at end of African plate.
They had triad-based religion also. Water system formed by shift
in tectonic plates & they refined it. Source of water was
actually outside Petra but their enemies thought it was inside.
Carefully kept secret! Greek & Roman visitors left graffiti.
Nabateans were from Yemen or Bahrain and skilled in water management.
Pre-Nabateans were Edomites.
8th c AD Edomites were shepherd. They chose the location because
it was well-fortified & fertile & on pilgrimage routes.
Nabateans took over Edomites. Connected to other civilizations.
The famous Cleopatra was the 7th Cleopatra out of 14. Cleopatra
asked for tax from the Nabateans. They were angry. Nabateans
burned her army. Marc Antony lost that fight. Herodotus promised
Salome _ the kingdom but she asked for the head of St. John the
Baptist instead. Herodotus' first wife was the daughter of King
Aritus who was King of Nabateans. 62 BC Romans came. Herodotus
asked for Roman support. King Arites withdrew from Roman's 4,000
troops. Then the Greeks tried to enter the Nabatean's city during
a feast to steal their treasure. No one noticed this incursion
which showed how big the city was. The Nabateans won, however
and killed most of the Greek army. The Greek leader was Anigones.
Greeks wrote a letter to apologize. Nabateans paid 300 talens
to the Greeks to show they still had Nabatean loyalty despite
defeating the Greek army. 1 talen=6,000 drachmae so a lot of
money. Basically the Nabateans bought peace from the Greeks.
But the Greeks tried to take over the Nabateans a 2nd time but
the Nabateans closed their gates. Then the Nabateans paid 600
Talens (a huge sum) + silk, cotton, perfume to try to get peace
once & for all. Greek leader returned to his father to say,
look, I won, I got a huge bribe. His father said, you are a foolish
boy. By signing a treaty you are agreeing they are equal to us,
the Greek empire! After that the Nabateans' fought against the
southern part of Israel.
Afat named after Afda-Nabatean
King. In the Roman period the trade routes shifted & 2 big
earthquakes destroyed the city of Petra: 365 & 749AD
251 also quakes. But by 600-751 flouring city again. After 751
they moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. The so-called
Treasury building was a local name; the building wasn't actually
a treasury. It was tomb. Assyrian & Egyptian influence as
well as Greek in the building and Rome. They borrowed from all
civilizations. Unique carving style. Flatten curves of rock,
then carve from top down. They wet the sandstone so it would
not break during chiseling. No room for error in this carving.
They carved the inside first to protect it from rain. There are
actually 854 facades; the Treasury is only one. 8 meters higher
ground than it was originally. The treasury was a king's burial
place. Temple belief came from gifts to the dead.
Note the Treasury
was actually a King's tomb. Locals named it the Treasury presumably
because they thought it looked like one. It is familiar to many
Americans because of the movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
with Sean Connery & Harrison Ford that came out in the 1980-s.
The city of Amman
Four Seasons Hotel, Amman
Madaba: 6th century pilgrims
guide to the holy land in an old Greek Orthodox church
Mount Nebo where Moses saw but
could not enter the holy land; 100 miles or so from Jerusalem
Mount Nebo--stones from part
of the old Roman Road
Wadi Rum--along the Incense Road
(Petra was on the Silk Road)
Wadi Rum--7 Pillars of Wisdom
(rock formation so named)
Bedoin tent w/camel sadles
Inside the City of Petra (actually
this should go last--people think Petra is "just" the
Treasury Building that's only one of 865 facades from a city
that could support 100,000 people)
the Siq--the rocky path to Petra
created by movement of technonic plates
Note the Treasury was actually
a King's tomb. Locals named it the Treasury presumably because
they thought it looked like one. It is familiar to many Americans
because of the movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade with
Sean Connery & Harrison Ford that came out in the 1980-s.